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Media queries and other devices CSS: Site Adaptability

Using media queries as a condition allows you not only to set the width/height and orientation of the screen, but also to specify the precise device that the styles will be applied for.

The CSS3 standard defines 4 basic types of devices that can be specified as media query conditions:

  • all — all available devices. This type is used by default, so you don't have to specify it.
  • print — printers. These styles are used when printing a web page. Separate printable CSS is very much in demand when creating online stores because users often print the page with the product they want.
  • screen — all the screens of the different devices. This includes both refrigerator displays and 4K monitors
  • speech — screen readers. This is text reading software that helps vision impaired people perceive the information on the page.
  /* Site styles */

  @media print {
    /* Styles for printing the page */

  @media speech {
    /* Styles for screen readers */

You can specify the device type when connecting a CSS file as you can with other media queries:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="eng">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Connecting CSS files</title>

    <!-- General styles for the project -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css">

    <!-- Styles for printing the page -->
    <link rel="stylesheet" media="print" href="print.css">

    <!-- Project markup -->

In addition to specifying a particular type of device, CSS also allows you to enter the specific characteristics of the device for which you want to apply styles. The main features that most browsers support are:

  • color. The number of bits of color the device is capable of reproducing. If no value is specified, it checks that the device can reproduce color.
  • monochrome. Whether or not the device is monochrome The device is monochrome if it can reproduce only two primary colors, black and white, and shades of gray. These include ebooks.
  • orientation. Self-explanatory. This characteristic was discussed in more detail in the last lesson.
  • aspect-ratio. his characteristic shows the aspect ratio of the viewport. For example 16/9 or 4/3. If the viewport resolution is 1280x720, aspect-ratio can take any multiple of that resolution to make the styles for that resolution apply. For example, you can specify 16/9, 32/18, 1280/720 and even 2560/1440.

Screen aspect ratios

  • device-aspect-ratio. A characteristic similar to aspect-ratio, but that takes into account the resolution of the device itself rather than the viewport resolution.
  /* Site styles */

  @media (color) {
    /* Styles for color devices */

  @media (device-aspect-ratio: 16/9) {
    /* Styles for devices with a 16:9 screen ratio */

Additional materials

Do it yourself

Create any page on your computer and try adding all the features in the media query condition so that the styles work on your computer.

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